(Scientific American Mind) Rethink Your Thoughts about Thinking
Jun 12, 2014 Tori RodriguezBy
Your beliefs about the way you think can shape your life in surprising ways. A spate of recent findings suggest that targeting such metacognition can help relieve mood and anxiety disorders, and it may even reduce symptoms of psychosis.
Metacognition often takes the form of a value judgment about one’s thoughts, such as “It’s bad that I overanalyze everything.” Research has shown that these metacognitive beliefs can play an important role in obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and generalized anxiety disorder, among others. In particular, they may matter more than the way we frame situations in our mind, such as by focusing on the negative aspects of a life event. That framing, called cognitive appraisal, is typically addressed in psychotherapy, but metacognition is not, perhaps to the patient’s detriment, explains psychologist Jennifer L. Hudson of Macquarie University in Australia. A study published last fall in the Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology found that among 83 children, those with anxiety disorders held more negative beliefs (“Worrying might make me go crazy”) and positive beliefs (“Worrying helps me feel better”) about worry than the nonanxious children. “We think that these beliefs might play a causal, or at least a maintaining, role in the anxiety disorders,” says Hudson, a co-author of the study.
Metacognitive therapy can successfully treat mood and anxiety disorders, according to a growing body of research. Developed in 2008 by Adrian Wells, a clinical psychologist at the University of Manchester in England, the therapy teaches patients to recognize and reframe metacognitive thoughts that reinforce unhelpful coping mechanisms, such as “my fretting is uncontrollable,” much in the same way cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) targets maladaptive beliefs along the lines of “the world is unsafe.” The technique also helps people become more flexible in the way they think about their thoughts, instead of defaulting to rumination, for example.